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优秀硕士英语论文范文精选十篇

   发布时间:2018-07-25   [点击量:3121]  


优秀硕士英语论文范文篇一

 
1. 简介
 
1.1研讨布景
近年来,当时初中学生的阅览教育的情况是被视为该课教育的词汇和语法教育。教育语法,阅览教育成为首要的注重。Teachers usually teach reading by analyzing the text, new words and expressions,sentence drills, grammars and structure of the text. This reading teaching method is not good for students todevelop the reading ability because vocabulary and language points are separated from the context andstudents’ ability of discourse analysis are neglected. So teachers and students should update their attitudestowards reading teaching, which is very important for the teacher to cultivate students’ ability to readeffectively. It is more important to cultivate and develop students’ reading ability (Zu, 2008).Moreover, http://for junior middle school students, teaching reading in English has mainly focused on thefollowing aspects: semantics, course design and pedagogy. Teaching and learning activities are mainlyconcened on prononciation and intonation, vocabulary, sentence patterns and grammatical rules. Althoughboth teachers and students have devoted their efforts to teaching and learning, the result is not sosatisfactory. They can seldom reach the goal they aim at. In reading comprehension, students remaindificient.
Based on the previous studies, the applications of Relevance Theory (RT) to English reading havedifferent focuses. Some studies concentrate on the implication of RThttp://for to the study of different levels oflanguage, such as lexical meanings, syntactic features, and discourse coherence (Tang, 2009). Somecombine the RT with the reading comprehension in specific exams. For example, in the paper ‘Theapplication of RT in English reading’ (Wu, 2006), the author aims to explore the application of RelevanceTtheory in reading with the purpose of improving students’ reading comprehension in CET-4. The authorproposed three points in the paper which are as follows: first, “inferring the utterance interpretation”, including the determination of the explicit meaning (explicature) and implicit meaning (implicature).Second, “inferring the meanings of new words through context”, and at last, “discourse markers inaccelerating reading speed”.
 
1.2 Significance of the Study研讨方针
Studies on RT have gradually shifted from reviews, surveys and modifications to theoreticalapplication in the study discourse, speech acts, metaphors, literature of utterance interpretation, coherenceand translation as well. Based on the previous studies, the researcher considers it important to conduct thepresent study. In this thesis, the significance of the study can be listed in the following two aspects:
First, from the perspective of theoretical significance, we find that researches seldom apply RT to theteaching of Enlglish reading on reviewing all the teaching strategies. So the present study could surelyenrich the theoretical research of English reading, and further effect the exploration of the English readingteaching.
Second, from the perspective of practical significance, in recent years, more attention has been paid tothe improvement of junior middle school students’ reading comprehension abilities and many Englishteachers hope to find out an appropriate theory that can be applied to teaching reading in English. However,there are rarely studies on English reading in the perspective of RT for junior middle school students. Thestudy of teaching reading in English from the perspective of the RT is intended to broaden the practicalapplications of relevance theory and accumulate some valuable implications for English teachers to perfectteacher-student classroom teaching and learning. The research is valued in theory and practice significantly.
 
Chapter 2 Literature Review文献回忆
 
2.1 Review on English Reading对英语阅览的谈论
什么是阅览?站在不同的视点,可能会得出不同的结论。依据牛津英语词典,阅览被界说为“查看和解说含义的标志或符号。美国心思学家古德曼(1988)以为,读是心思言语课程,心思言语学的一个猜谜游戏,包含思想和言语的彼此交互效果的进程。Grabe (1991) once pointed out that the description of reading has to account for the notions that fluentreading is rapid, purposeful, interactive, comprehending, flexible and, most importantly, graduallydeveloping. As concluded in Wikipedia (2010), reading is a complex cognitive process of decodingsymbols for the intention of deriving meaning (reading comprehension) and/or constructing meaning. It isthe mastery of basic cognitive processes to the point where they are automatic so that attention is freed forthe analysis of meaning. Reading is a manner of language acquisition, of communication, and of sharinginformation and ideas. Like all language, it is a complex interaction between the text and the reader whichis shaped by the reader’s prior knowledge, experiences, attitude, and language community that is culturallyand socially situated. The reading process requires continuous practices, development, and refinement.Readers use a variety of reading strategies to assist with decoding (to translate symbols into sounds orvisual representations of speech) and comprehension. Readers may use morpheme, semantics, syntax andcontext clues to identify the meaning of unknown words. Readers integrate the words they have read intotheir existing framework of knowledge or schema (schemata theory).Other types of reading are not speechbased writing systems, such as music notation or pictograms. The common link is the interpretation ofsymbols to extract the meaning from the visual notations.
 
Chapter 3 Relevance Theory (RT) .............................. 30-48 
    3.1 Relevance Theory ..............................30-36 
        3.1.1 Communication as an Ostensive ..............................30-31 
        3.1.2 Context and Optimal Relevance ..............................31-33 
        3.1.3 The Principle of Relevance ..............................33-34 
        3.1.4 Explicature and Implicature.............................. 34-36 
    3.2 A Relevance –based Framework ..............................36-43 
        3.2.1 Reading as an Inference.............................. 36-37 
        3.2.2 Reading as an Optimal Relevance.............................. 37 
        3.2.3 Reading as a Context.............................. 37-39 
        3.2.4 Implication of RT to Figurative Speech.............................. 39-43 
    3.3 Cognitive Environment and Reading ..............................43-45 
    3.4 Teaching Model in the Present Study.............................. 45-48 
Chapter 4 Methodology.............................. 48-57 
    4.1 Research Questions ..............................48 
    4.2 Subjects ..............................48-49 
    4.3 Instruments ..............................49-52 
    4.4 Research Procedures ..............................52-57 
Chapter 5 Data Analysis and Discussion ..............................57-70 
    5.1 Research Question One 57-60 
    5.2 Research Question Two ..............................60-64 
    5.3 Research Question Three ..............................64-68 
5.4 Results of the In-depth Interview ..............................68-70
 
Conclusion结论
 
Cognitive environments are important in relevance-theoretic reading to help students to seek relevance.It’s important to decide the semantic meaning of words in context, to process main idea of the material onthe basis of relevance, to emphasize the building of personal background knowledge input and to giveinstructions of other reading skills. In a word, what has been emphasized here is on how to understand theencoded meaning of the words and paragraphs under the guidance of relevance.
The facts that students of different reading comprehension level hold different attitudes towards thecognitive envionments, which leads us to consider relevance-theoretic reading teaching model a much moreindividualized teaching model in order to make it benefit each student. This might add extra difficulty forteachers who engage in this new method. It might be a huge challenge for teachers to creat effectiveactivities and tasks for all students, especially for a huge group of students. Anyway, although there mightbe some drawbacks to use of the new model, the promising achievements it brings still deserveconsideration.
 

优秀硕士英语论文范文篇二

 
第一章序言
 
1.1研讨布景
在传统的英语教育中,教师一贯被视为主人,而学生们被视为公务员。有一个常见的景象,学生们坐的垂直的面临着教师和黑板,这种情况在我国各级校园都不破例。The teacher on a platform as a dictator, symbolizing his/her superiority and authority,spends a large amount of time delivering lectures and informing instructions while his students are servantsand passive followers, listening mechanically and taking notes or trying to memorize the words, drills andstructures busily. They have no chance to digest, to think and even to ask questions. They are just onlydemanded to make exactly correct responses to teachers’ stimuli but not praised to initiate their own use ofthe target languages. In a way, the teacher is separated from the students not only physically, but alsopsychologically. Under such circumstances, the interaction among the teacher and his students is always ina linear way: that is, “monologue”. Specifically speaking, almost all the voices only are produced from theteachers themselves. Therefore, the only result is that students seem to anticipate receiving instructions, butin essence, they are unwilling to jot down lecture notes from the teachers at all. In fact, all the classes aremotionless and static.
It is well known that there have been great changes in English teaching after the adoption ofdialogue teaching theory. The English teaching employing dialogue teaching theory is to create a moreeffective and efficient teaching atmosphere in real English classes. Then, English teaching style will bemore active. In a class like this, students will have more chances to voice themselves, join in class activities,answer the teachers’ questions and interact with the teacher voluntarily. However, when we scan and probeinto the dialogue teaching theory in real English classes, admittedly, a series of pseudo-dialogues exist. Theso-called pseudo-dialogue refers to the inefficient, ineffective dialogue or even invalid dialogue, which hasseriously violated the concept and spirit of dialogue and reduces the quality of teaching (Ma Jun, 2009:45).There are major five types of pseudo-dialogues: (1) yes-no judgment dialogue, (2) skin-deep dialogue, (3) teacher-centered dialogue, (4) closed dialogue, (5) performing dialogue. These pseudo-dialogues fail toperform the function that a true dialogue does in teaching. What is worse, more and more pseudo-dialoguesemerge in English teaching. The classes are still teacher-centered, text-centered, examination-centered,grammar and vocabulary based, and the teacher is the master, students are servants. The relationshipbetween them is superior –inferior.The review of the theory and the survey of the previous studies show that few studies have beenconducted on pseudo-dialogues in English teaching. As a matter of fact, the study of pseudo-dialogue inChina began in one article How to avoid “pseudo-dialogue”? (Ma Jun, 2009:45). He is the first person thatraises this question, and then Chen Guisheng (2010:110) makes further research on this topic in one of hismasterpiece Ke Cheng Shi Hua--Dialogue Teaching. However, up to now, there are only several articlesconnected with pseudo-dialogue, while all of them are concerned with the subjects of Chinese, history,chemistry, politics and other subjects. None of works has been dealt with the subject of English teaching inJunior Middle School. Therefore, it is of significance to make a study of pseudo-dialogue in Englishteaching in Junior Middle School.
 
Chapter Two Literature Review文献回忆
 
2.1 The Definition of Dialogue对话的界说
In this study, it is essential and necessary to examine the etymology of the term “dialogue”.Actually, “dialogue” is from the Greek word “dialogos”, which means to have something done with twopeople speaking together, but some of the connotations of the Greek expressions tell us a bit more than this.The Greece “dialogos” is formed by two parts: the first part is the prefix-“dia”, which has two kinds ofmeaning—one means “double, twice”, and the other means “ between”, “across”, or “through”; For thesecond part, the suffix “logos”, in Greece, it is not only means “word”, “language”, “conversation” and“dialogue”, but also “thought”, “rationality” and “judgment”(Burbles,1993). Hence, dia + logue =“the wordbetween us”. And Knowles (1970) says that the approach to language learning under the philosophy of thisprinciple holds that students and teachers have enough time to be in dialogue with each other and will learnnew knowledge, attitudes, or skills. Heidegger states (1977: 79-82, cited from Burbules, 1993), “if we saythat the basic meaning of “logos” is means……“Logos” as speech really means to make manifest ‘what istalk about’…… “Logos” lets something be seen….for the speaker (who serves as the medium) or for thosewho speak with each other….Logos acquires the meaning of relation and relationship”.
 
Chapter Three Research Design ...............................27-31 
    3.1 Research Questions............................... 27 
    3.2 Research Participants ...............................27-28 
    3.3 Research Methods............................... 28-30 
        3.3.1 Observation and Audio-recording ...............................28-29 
        3.3.2 Research Questionnaire............................... 29-30 
        3.3.3 Interview............................... 30 
    3.4 Data Collection ...............................30-31 
Chapter Four Data Results and Discussion ...............................31-49 
    4.1 the Observation and Audio-recording............................... 31-33 
        4.1.1 Non-interactivity............................... 31-32 
        4.1.2 Unequality ...............................32 
        4.1.3 Passivity ...............................32-33 
        4.1.4 Non-creativity............................... 33 
        4.1.5. Unilateral Output............................... 33 
    4.2 Results and Discussion............................... 33-49 
Chapter Five Conclusion ...............................49-57 
    5.1 Summary of the Major Findings of this Study............................... 49-51 
        5.1.1 Major Findings of the Characteristics............................... 49 
        5.1.2 Major Findings of the Factors Leading ...............................49-51 
    5.2 Pedagogical Suggestions ...............................51-54 
        5.2.1 Improving Teachers' Qualifications ...............................51-53 
        5.2.2 Guaranteeing Enough Time and Space ...............................53-54 
5.3 Limitations and Prospects for Further Study ...............................54-57
 
Conclusion结论
 
It is important to note that there are some limitations of the present study. The first limitation isthat the samples involved for data collection is not enough. Although the collected data reflects the realsituations of pseudo-dialogue in Junior Middle School to a certain extent, only 12 teachers are involved asthe audio-recorded subjects, which may not be enough to cover all variables and situations.The second limitation is that the observed classes are audio-recorded rather than video-recordeddue to some practical difficulties. Van Lier (1988: 238) argues that “video recording is preferable, sincenon-verbal behavior is important for analysis.” 
As a result, this study has had no access to the non-verbalbehaviors accompanying the teacher-student interactions or to the independently occurred non-verbalinteractions between teachers and students. Hence, for the follow-up researches on dialogue in classroomteaching, video recording is advocated.In addition, this research chooses the Affiliated Junior Middle School of Henan NormalUniversity as research school, it is a key middle school, however, it is known that most of elementaryschools in our country are in the countryside. Therefore, this school does not have general representativefeature and cannot has strong evidence to stand for all the elementary schools in our country in spite ofaccurate data from the Chapter Four.
Lastly, it is important to point out that the present study only discusses some aspects ofpseudo-dialogue. And this thesis, to some degree, has already found the causes which lead to pseudo-dialogues. While how to effectively apply the dialogues teaching theory into English teaching in JuniorMiddle School still has some problems and needs to be discussed urgently. And the following aspectsshould be further discussed by the follow-up researches.
 

优秀硕士英语论文范文篇三

 
第一章 序言
 
一、 研讨布景
在英语学习进程中,学习者的学习动机与英语学习联络亲近,是影响学习者英语学习的最重要的动力驱动要素之一,英语学习动机不只影响学习者的学习热心和活跃性,也对英语学习效果发生影响。当然,英语学习效果也会影响学习者的学习动机水平。假如一个学习者的英语学习动机较强,在英语学习中能够前进学习的爱好和活跃性,进而取得较好的英语学习效果,好的学习效果又会增强学习者的英语学习动机;反之亦然。这正如闻名的教育心思学家奥苏伯尔(D. P. Ausubel)曾经说过:“动机与学习之间的联络是典型的相得益彰的联络,绝非一种单向性的联络。”
只要学习者活跃自动学习英语而又把握恰当的办法,他们才干取得抱负的学习效果。因而,学习动机问题近年来遭到教育研讨者的广泛注重,并对此展开了相关的评论和研讨,英语学习动机对学习者英语学习的影响已不容置疑。那么,又是什么要素影响学习者的英语学习动机呢?相关研讨标明,影响学习者英语学习动机的要素许多,包含学生自身要素、校园学习环境、家长心情以及教师要素等。除了学习者自身要素,教师的品格魅力、教育办法、言语常识才干等要素对学习者的英语学习动机发生较大的影响。只要精确了解跟教师相关的要素对学生学习动机的影响,咱们才干提出相应的教育战略,激起学生的英语学习动机,才干为英语教育实践供给辅导和前进英语教育效果。中学阶段的学生处于心思展开的青春期,他们的智力飞跃展开,思想日趋老练,特性逐步构成,自我知道增强,对学习的知道也愈加明确。在英语学习进程中,学习动机是影响中学生英语学习的重要要素之一,而在欠发达区域,经济文化落后,短少学习英语的环境,英语教育质量偏低,许多学生短少学习英语的内驱动力,英语教师怎么激起学生学习动机就显得更为直接和重要。
现在,国外的动机研讨现已构成相关的动机理论,学习动机则首要依据一般的动机理论进行研讨。由于中外学生所在的环境差异巨大,国外的研讨效果无法直接在我国英语教育中运用;国内近年来展开的英语学习动机研讨首要以大学生为研讨方针,较少研讨中学生的英语学习动机,并且绝大大都研讨探求的是学习动机对学习效果的影响,很少触及影响学习动机的要素。但大学生与中学生在特性展开特色、学习环境、常识布景等方面存在着显着差异,这些研讨效果也不适合直接剖析中学生的英语学习动机。别的,国内较少的以中学生为研讨方针的学习动机研讨根本上是在城市或许郊区进行,短少对欠发达区域县城中学和乡村中学的相关研讨。因而,查询研讨欠发达区域中学生的英语学习动机类型,了解其特色和影响要素,对改进其英语教育和学习有重要的理论含义和实践含义。
 
二、研讨含义
 
(一) 英语学习动机是中学英语课程规范的情感方针之一
现在根底教育课程革新的一个重要方面是注重学生情感心情与价值观的展开,并把学生情感心情与价值观的培育渗透到学科教育和教育之中,培育学生健全的品格。新课程着重从学生的学习爱好、生活经历和认知水平动身,选用使命型的教育途径,让学生在领会、实践、参与和沟通中展开概括言语运用才干。作为英语课程方针之一的情感心情指的是爱好、动机、自傲、毅力和协作精力等影响学生学习进程和学习效果的相关要素以及在学习进程中逐步构成的祖国知道和世界视界。坚持活跃的学习心情是英语学习成功的要害,教师应在教育中,不断激起并强化学生的学习爱好,并引导他们逐步将爱好转化为安稳的学习动机,以使他们树立自傲心,练习战胜困难的毅力,知道自己学习的优势与缺少,乐于与别人协作,养成和调和健康向上的品格。
 
第二章 文献总述
 
一、 学习动机的内在
尽管“动机”在外语学习的研讨中被广泛运用,但中外学者关于动机概念的论述有所不同,至今尚未构成一起的说法。心思学家一起以为,动机首要归于影响人的活动与实践的非认知要素。传统教育心思学把学习动机界说为激起与保持学生从事学习活动的原因,但现代教育心思学赋予这一概念更多的含义。正如沃尔福克(A. E. Woolfolk)所说:“学习动机不只仅触及学生要学或想学,还触及更多含义,包含计划、方针导向、对所要学习与怎么学习的使命的检讨认知知道、自动寻求新信息、对反应的明晰感觉、对效果的自豪与满足和不怕失败”,并把学习动机界说为“寻求学习活动的含义并尽力从这些活动中取得好处的倾向”。
所谓动机(motive),是指引发并保持活动的倾向。它触及这样三个方面的问题:第一,引发行为的原因是什么?第二,使行为指向某一意图的原因是什么?第三,保持这一行为的原因是什么?心思学研讨中往往用动机效果(motivation)这一术语来描绘个别发放出能量和激动,指引行为朝向某一意图,并将这一行为保持一段时刻的种种内部状态和进程。在教育心思学中,人们更关怀学习方面的动机。冯忠良、伍新春在《教育心思学》一书中将学习动机界说为激起个别进行学习活动、保持已引起的学习活动,并致使个别的学习活动朝向必定的学习方针的一种内部启动机制。他们以为,学习动机可经过外在的学习行为即学习活跃性反映出来,学习动机与学习活动能够彼此激起、彼此加强。学习动机一旦构成,它就会从头到尾,贯穿于某一学习活动的全进程。
 
第三章 研讨的理论根底.............................. 25-30 
    一、 效果动机理论与动机的期望..............................25-26 
    二、 需求层次理论.............................. 26-28 
    三、 效果方针理论.............................. 28-30 
第四章 欠发达区域中学生学习动机..............................30-48 
    一、 研讨触及的概念 ..............................30-31 
    二、 查询研讨的施行.............................. 31 
    三、 查询效果剖析.............................. 31-46 
    四、 结论.............................. 46-48 
第五章 前进中学生英语学习动机的主张.............................. 48-53 
    一、 加强特性涵养,前进品格魅力.............................. 48-49 
    二、 英语教师应与学生树立调和师生联络..............................49-50 
三、 教师应前进专业本质..............................50-53
 
结论
 
学习动机对中学生的英语学习有着重要的效果,根底教育新课程革新也着重对学生情感心情的注重,英语课程规范明确指出学生要有正确的学习动机,教师应在教育中不断激起学生的学习动机。
本研讨对欠发达区域中学生学习动机的特色及其跟教师相关的影响要素进行查询研讨,并就跟教师相关的影响要素进一步提出培育和激起中学生英语学习动机的主张。从上述几章的查询和剖析中,咱们得出:欠发达区域中学生英语学习动机处于中等偏高水平;女生的英语学习动机显着高于男生;县城中学学生的英语学习动机显着高于乡村中学;中学生的英语学习动机与跟教师相关的影响要素出现显着的正相关,教师特性、师生联络和教育才干对学生英语学习动机的影响都比较大。英语教师要培育和激起学生的学习动机应做到:加强特性涵养,前进品格魅力;与学生树立调和融洽的师生联络;前进专业本质和选用多种办法。
 

优秀硕士英语论文范文篇四

 
第一章导论
 
1.1研讨布景
在此布景下,现在的英语考纲和新课标对英语写作的要求越来越高。近年来,中考也越来越注重对写作才干的考察,写作在中考中的比重也越来越大。以南京市中考为例,写作的字数要求从曾经的60字上升到现在的80字,写作在英语总效果中的比重从曾经的1/12上升到现在的1/8。中考评分规范的制定也愈加详细和细化,它首要从以下几个方面衡量学生作文质量的凹凸:内容要害、运用司汇和语法结构的数量和精确性、上下文的连接性及言语的得当性。详细来讲,一篇好的中考书面表达应内容充分,要害全面,言语丰厚、精确、得当,行文连接,过渡自然。可是学生的写作水平却让人堪忧:在考试中,有将近一半的学生面临写作不知怎么着笔,大都学生写作水平欠佳,得高分的学生更是寥寥无儿。
面临这样的景象,英语教师都很着急,纷繁找原因想对策。有的教师期望经过考前猜题来协助学生前进考试的得分,有的教师则是经过一让学生背范文来敷衍考试,可是效果证明这些办法都不能从根本上前进学生的写作水平,改进学生一贯以来写作得不到高分的情况。因而,在英语教育中活跃探求有用的词汇,特别是词汇组块的学习战略,关于减轻学生担负和前进写作水平都具有重要的现实含义。尽管新课标和中考对初中生的英语写作提出了越来越高的要求,可是,在初中阶段,写作教育和学习的现状却并不达观。
在笔者所做的一项查询中发现,30%的学生以为写作很难,50%的学生以为写作较难。由此可见,绝大大都学生对写作存在畏难心情,对写作短少必要的爱好与动机,在写作中难以领会英语学习的效果感。不合理、从中考阅卷情况看,学生英语写作中遍及存在着如内容匮乏、谋篇布局上下文联接过渡不自然、词汇匮乏、语法概念含糊、汉语式表达、把握不精确、词汇运用不得当、调配过错等问题(转引自路世英,2007:76)。习语教师投入了很多的精力解说词汇和语法,剖析文章结构,可是却收效甚微。学生学了多年英语,背了很多的单词、短语和语法,可是执行到作文里,或搜肠刮肚、不知怎么表达,或过错百出,写不出精确、地道、连接的作文。
上述问题标明,学生尽管进行了很多的输入,可是其言语的产出才干或表达才干并没有得到前进,在输出时不能有用、快速地检索和提取自己所需求的词汇。学生在语一言学习的“输入”和“输出”间存在妨碍,“输入”无法顺利促进“输出”(张玉英,07二125)。因而怎么改动这种费时低效的局势,有用处理学生写作中的问题,得引起咱们教育者的一起注重与沉思。
 
1.2研讨的含义和意图
词块教育法为英语写作教育研讨供给了新的思路与视角。词块法作为一种全新的理论,在国内的研讨时刻并不长,大大都研讨也首要以理论探求为主。近来,针对词块理论在运用范畴方面的研讨日趋增多,但较多地会集在词块法对白话的输出影响_气。针对写作教育中怎么运用词块教育法以及这方面的实证研讨相对较少,研讨的方针也以大学生为主,作为具有必定英语根底和迫切需求前进写作才干的初中生在该范畴上遭到的注重较少。依据该理论对二语习得和二语写作的优势,笔者以为在初中生层面上施行词块教育法有着非常活跃的含义。因而,笔者期望能经过自己的实践,探求出一条能有用前进初中学生写作才干的新路子。木试验中,笔者以词块理论为主线,以单元课文为蓝本,引导学生经过辨认、内化吸收、运用、堆集词块等一系列活动输入与写作相关的词块,一起,把一词块教华贯穿于“进程写作”的各个环节中,经过教师与学生间、学生与学生间的互动、评论与点评引导学生提取、修改、输出、稳固词块。笔者期望能使用词块,架构起写作言语“输入”与“输出”间的桥梁,使用“输出”的需求强化“输入”的内化效果,前进学生词块的产出才干,然后前进学生作文用词的地道性、难确性,华章安排的连接性,进而前进学生写作才干。
 
第二章文献总述硅国外词块和国内词块的研讨现状
 
1976年,Becker第一次提出了词汇组块这一概念。他指出“咱们的表达法州一月预制的结构来表达自己的思想,这样咱们就不需求再费力从单词开端来组法结构了。”Pawleyands川er(1983)更倾向于把这种现象称为“句干’,在他看来,只是把握生成语法是无法真实的把握一门言语,而长从词汇的视点去学习并把握言语才可能真实展开自己的言语技巧。Altenbers(199l)发现大约700/0的日常白话都是由预制语块构成的。Nattinger&DcC而co口99补在作品《词汇短语和言语教育》中提出言语常识伙括生成语句的规矩以及规范语句正确运用的规矩常识,外交进程中受语用规矩的系统性要素也应归于语一言才干(competence)。他们以为,言语的流利程门亡取决于学习者大脑中贮存了多少具有生成性的语法规矩,而是取决于学习_东、脑中终究贮存了多少数量的语块,是语块使人们能流利地表达自我。但他们护‘语用才干看作与语法才干敌对的成分,而是看作介于严格含义上的语法才干臼澳六运用要素之间的一种接连体或许过渡。在对语用才干的界定下,他们提出传统的词汇与句法之间的词汇一语法单位一词汇短语(lexicalphrases)是我承受和提取言语的根本办法。
第三章 理论结构.................................. 26-40 
    3.1 根本概念.................................. 26-29 
        3.1.1 词块.................................. 26-28 
        3.1.2 写作.................................. 28-29 
    3.2 词块理论.................................. 29-40 
        3.2.1 词块分类.................................. 29-31  
        3.2.2 理论根底 ..................................31-37 
        3.2.3 词块的功用.................................. 37-40 
第四章 实证研讨.................................. 40-47 
    4.1 研讨的问题.................................. 40 
    4.2 研讨方针.................................. 40 
    4.3 研讨东西.................................. 40-42 
    4.4在写作教育中的详细施行.................................. 42-46 
    4.5 数据的搜集.................................. 46-47 
第五章 数据剖析 ..................................47-52 
    5.1 问卷效果剖析.................................. 47-48 
5.2 写作剖析.................................. 48-52 
 
结论
 
本论文以词块理论为根底,把词块理论贯穿于写作教育,活跃探求了一条能有用前进初中学生写作才干的途径。笔者把词块法在初中英语写作教育中的施行分为三个阶段一课文阅览输入词块阶段,“进程写作”运用输出词块阶段,写作后稳固词块阶段。在各个阶段的教育中,笔者都运用了相应的教育战略,活跃引导学生经过辨认、吸收内化、堆集等教育活动丰厚词块库并有用把握运用词块,一起,使用“进程写作”法的优势,经过同级修改、师生互批等办法引导学生相互评论词块、相互学习词块,进一步验证和娴熟学生对词块的运用,前进输出的效果。
经过三个阶段的教育,成功地在写作言语的“输入”与“输出”问构建起“词块”这座桥梁,使学生能精确、地道地表达文章思想,连接、顺利地安排文章结构,进而有用地前进了学生的写作才干。一起,在试验中,笔者有知道地引导学生学习相关的词块学习战略,培育他们的自主学习才干,为学生的可持续展开奠定坚实的根底。经过试验研讨,咱们能够得出以下结论:
1)词块教育法能有用前进初中学生的写作水平。经过试验,试验班学生的词块量得到大幅度前进,对词块的娴熟运用使作文语一言更精确、结构安排更连接。经过对作文效果和词块量的定量剖析,咱们能够得出结论:在试验后,试验班学生的写作效果,即写作才干显着高于操控班;试验班学生的词块量增长幅度显着高于操控班的学生。
2)经过对查询问卷的数据剖析和对部分试验班学生的访谈效果,咱们发现,词块教育法能有用前进学生学习写作的爱好及自主学习写作的才干。学生在试验阶段所实践的词块学习战略耳濡目染地影响了学生的写作心情,增强了他们的学习动机、自傲心,使他们充满着对培育自己自主学习才干的巴望和英语学习的效果感。
 

优秀硕士英语论文范文篇五

 
第1章简介
1.1研讨布景
英国闻名言语学家DA威尔金斯,说:“没有语法能够传达,没有词汇,什么都不行以传达。”美国闻名的言语学家,布林指出,教师有必要使词汇学习成为外语教育的重要组成部分(施,2011年)。
In China, grammar was more important than vocabulary, grammar teaching was the main teachingcontent in class, and however, vocabulary was in a secondary position. In recent 30 years, the secondlanguage acquisition research gets a high level of attention; it also shows that people improve therecognition of the importance of the second language vocabulary. In the research field of second languageacquisition, the connotation of vocabulary knowledge, the process of vocabulary acquisition and themethods and strategies of vocabulary learning have been researched more, and they are also have morepractical guidance. In the actual process of learning, learners are in the dominant position in vocabularylearning, vocabulary acquisition should be more from the point of view of the learners.
Vocabulary is one of the basic materials of language, without enough words you can not listen, speak,read and write effectively, and can not communicate effectively in English.English is the indo-European language, Chinese is the Sino-Tibetan language, except the prepositionsand a few onomatopoetic words, there are few similarities between them, so Chinese will cost more energyin vocabulary learning. In junior high schools, the vocabulary learning has always been a difficult part.Vocabulary teaching methods are still very old and inefficient. Students are eager to find the most effectivevocabulary learning method.
 
1.2 Research Motivation and Objectives研讨意图和动机
Whether based on the communication needs of student, or the examination-oriented education form,students are eager to expand their vocabulary. Vocabulary learning is also the key to English learning, andat the same time, it is the bottleneck of restriction for the most English learners. The learners spend a lot oftime reciting the words, but they always had little effect. The overall objective of the English course in basic education is to develop students' overall language proficiency. The vocabulary curriculum requiresmiddle school students to learn to use 1500 ~ 1600 words and 200 ~ 300 idioms or fixed matches.Meanwhile, the students should have the ability to infer the word meaning from the context, and tounderstand the meaning of words. Thus, finding good vocabulary learning methods and strategies cangreatly shorten the learning time and improve learning efficiency.A more serious problem is the high rate of the words forgetting in English vocabulary learning, this isnot only the barrier to the students of using the words and learning English continually, but also largelyinfluence the students’ enthusiasm and confidence in English learning.
For the problems of English vocabulary learning, many junior high school students are changing andtrying new vocabulary learning method constantly, but what kind of method is more effective vocabularylearning method? Different students may have different recognitions of effective learning method, but theywill have various problems in the course of study, then, the main purpose of this paper is to find out themain problems in English vocabulary learning of junior high school students and to find out the reasons forthese issues.So the teachers can help the students learn efficiently, relieve the burden of the students, make thestudents read better and expand their vocabulary, use the language flexibly, and achieve the objective ofEnglish communication.
 
Chapter 2 Literature Review文献总述
 
Compared with the vocabulary learning of native language, the vocabulary learning of foreignlanguage is a much more complex and special procedure. In theory, foreign language learning (mainlyrefers to the foreign language learning which start from mastering the mother-tongue language learning)has already been completely different from native language learning in the foundations of cognitive, theability of communication, and the emotion and the environment. The vocabulary learning of foreignlanguage is affected by the individual differences, environmental factors, emotional factors, etc. Forexample, from the emotional factor, such as the motivation and personality of foreign language learnersdetermine the success or failure in a large extent (Shu & Zhuang, 2008).
Similarly, the vocabulary knowledge is also very important to us. Notice that the word information isactually to learn the meanings of the new words in this context. From the situation of learning vocabularyby themselves, to find out in the dictionary is the most common way. Understand the meanings of thewords, the next step is to memory. Research shows that a word in a repeated more than seven times onlycan be remembered. After the words memory, if you do not use them timely, the will be easily forgotten.Learn the new words can be used in writing or in time after the dialogue, for example, according to severalnew words to write a small story, make a dialogue and consolidate the memory (Gains, R. 1986).
 
Chapter 3 Research Design................................. 26-30 
    3.1 Research questions .................................26 
    3.2 Research participants................................. 26-27 
    3.3 Research methods and procedures................................. 27 
    3.4 Data collection .................................27-30 
Chapter 4 Results and Analysis .................................30-40 
    4.1 Results and discussion of questionnaires................................. 30-35 
    4.2 Results and discussion of interviews .................................35-38 
    4.3 classroom observation .................................38-40 
Chapter 5 Concluding Remarks................................. 40-52 
    5.1 Major findings................................. 40-41 
    5.2 Pedagogical implications................................. 41-42 
    5.3 Some Suggestions................................. 42-49 
5.4 Limitation and Prospects................................. 49-52
 
Conclusion结论
 
To find out these problems, the teachers or the parents can make a plan to help the student to learn theEnglish words. English vocabulary learning is the difficult part all the time. Most of the student think thatreciting the English words is so boring, now, to find out the main problems of learning English wards, andthen, to find the reasons which appear there problems. To find out these problems that can help the teachers,the teachers is the participant of learning, they always meet all kinds of problems, through this investigation,the teachers will understand the students, for this, the teachers will have some methods to solve theseproblems.
According to this investigation, the factors of the family are also important. The investigation showssome family factors of learning English vocabulary. Through this, parents should pay attention to their children, and parents need to know the pressure that they give. Parents and their children are also lack ofcommunication, and the parents should know the importance of communicating with their children.
Although only the students answer the questions in this investigation, but the questionnaire reflect theproblems which are in all aspects. According to this questionnaire, the students know the problems ofthemselves. The author hopes this investigation can help the students, the teachers and the parents to solvethe problem try their best to solve the problem, and strengthen the communication.The author hopes the students will have more interest, strong motivation, free communication, in thisway, the author thinks that the English vocabulary learning is no longer a difficult part.

 

优秀硕士英语论文范文篇六

 
第一章 导言
 
1.1 研讨布景
随着新课程革新的深化,教师的教育观念渐渐的发生了改动,讲堂上,由“满堂灌”向“外交法”改动;由以“教师为中心”向以“学生为中心”改动。教师这样做的意图是想给学生创造参与互动的时机,激起学生参与讲堂活动的愿望,但是,笔者经过讲堂查询发现,教师与学生,学生与学生之间的讲堂互动并不是那样调和。相反,讲堂气氛却显得沉闷,压抑。访谈中有的教师谈到,现在的英语讲堂上总是那几个学习效果好的学生答复问题,其他大大都学生缄默沉静不语,无论怎么鼓舞和启示,学生仍然不肯参与到讲堂互动中。
学生的这种讲堂体现影响到了教育质量和讲堂的教育效果。有的教师对不参与讲堂活动,坚持缄默沉静的学生给予了这样消沉点评:胆怯,不爱动脑筋,学习不吃苦等。学生听到教师如此点评自己,心中对教师发生了不满,讲堂上愈加缄默沉静不语。缄默沉静对教师和学生都形成了负面影响,不只影响教师的授课心情,还晦气于学生言语才干的前进。关于学生的讲堂缄默沉静现象,遭到国表里研讨者的遍及注重,Tannen.D(1996);Nakane(2002);Jaworskiand Sachdev(1988);李佳美(2003);喻志英(2003)范亚林(1997)从不同层面,不同视点对讲堂缄默沉静进行了研讨,并且取得了一些效果。但是,在从学生视角研讨讲堂缄默沉静的要素方面,现在却很少有人谈论到。因而,本文企图从这方面临学生的讲堂缄默沉静问题进行研讨。
 
1.2 意图和含义
学生的讲堂缄默沉静不只与国家新的课程规范中要求"学生活跃参与讲堂互动”的精力不相符,并且对教师的教和学生的学都形成了晦气的影响。为了增加讲堂互动,活跃讲堂气氛,前进学生沟通的质量,增强学生学习言语的爱好,本文旨在经过问卷与访谈探察教师要素、学生要素与讲堂环境要素是怎么影响学生的讲堂参与的,一起提出处理学生讲堂缄默沉静问题的主张。由于讲堂教育中学生参与程度直接影响学生的学习效果和教师的教育质量。这个问题不处理,从大的方面说,是对学生的生长展开和国计民生的未来不负责任,从小的方面来说,是不管教育质量和教育革新的要求,久而久之就是教师的失职。
反之,研讨和处理了这个问题,调动了学生的讲堂学习活跃性,前进了学生英语学习的参与知道,将有用地改进当时的讲堂冷酷疲沓,学生被迫逆反的情况,将有利于真实展开以学生为主体的协作探求互动外交办法的英语教育革新,然后促进英语讲堂教育更趋调和,到达学生英语学习的更高境地。
 
1.3 论文结构
本论文包含五个部分:第一部分,提出了本课题研讨的布景和意图;第二部分,概括介绍了缄默沉静和讲堂缄默沉静的界说及研讨现状及相关理论常识;第三部分,研讨规划,包含三个研讨学生讲堂缄默沉静的研讨问题、讲堂查询、访谈和问卷查询三种研讨东西和研讨方针。第四部分,从教师,学生以及讲堂环境三方面临讲堂缄默沉静进行了剖析,提出了打破学生讲堂缄默沉静的合理主张。第五部分,对本论文作简略的总结。
 
第二章 文献总述
 
2.1 研讨现状
国外不少的学者已对学生的讲堂缄默沉静进行了较为深化的研讨,其研讨首要会集在对男女生讲堂缄默沉静差异和文化布景差异的评论上。Kramarae and Treichler(1990)的研讨标明:女生喜爱这样的学习环境:在评论中,她们能够对等的参与和共享,与教师之间能够自由自在共处。Myra and David Sadker(1994)的试验标明开端女生在校园里体现很好,在讲堂上得到高分并且很少遭到赏罚,但即便如此,小学女生很少从教师那里得到更多协助。他们的试验发现,在小学和中学,尽管教师鼓舞有问题举手讲话,但他们更多留意和听取的是男生的反映。Tannen(1996)的研讨也发现:女生更乐于进行小组评论,而不是全体评论,在小集体评论中她们感到愉快和舒适,而在全体评论中却鼓舞竞争和占有。
依据Ferris and Tagg(1996),由于受传统文化的影响,亚裔学生在班级上比较缄默沉静,简单害臊,不肯答复问题;Jaworski and Sachdev(1988)的研讨标明:在传统的讲堂上教师主导着讲堂,这样的讲堂环境培育了学生在学习上的慵懒,他们上课不喜爱考虑,喜爱教师讲,自己听被迫的教育办法。教师在讲堂上权威性形成了学生的讲堂缄默沉静。Nakane(2002)在讲堂教育中,也留意到一部分日本学生由于言语才干短缺,在公共场所不敢斗胆的体现自己,他以为社会文化布景也会导致学生的讲堂缄默沉静不语。在我国,近几年也有不少学者开端对讲堂缄默沉静问题进行了评论,现在对其作简略的整理,概括为以下几方面:关于在英语学习中讲堂缄默沉静的原因,李佳美(2003)提出学生在英语课中坚持缄默沉静的原因是传统文化要素、教师授课办法和学生自我认知。
冯秀红(2003)指出我国学生的讲堂缄默沉静在于我国人的性情特征、传统的教育办法、我国的传统文化和言语才干的短少。刘梅华和都宁(2009)经过问卷查询、查询、访谈办法对学生英语讲堂焦虑进行了研讨,效果发现,大部分学生在讲堂上都会感到严峻,特别水平比较差的学生,在答复、小组评论、人物扮演的讲堂活动中,简单严峻。程世禄和龚由至(2006)也提出了讲堂活动参与与学生白话水平有亲近的联络。他们指出:“学生白话根底好,讲堂参与好;假如学生白话根底差,讲堂参与比较差。
 
第三章 研讨规划.............................. 16-18 
    3.1 研讨问题 .............................16 
    3.2 研讨方针............................. 16 
    3.3 研讨东西............................. 16-18 
        3.3.1 讲堂查询............................. 16 
        3.3.2 访谈 .............................16-17 
        3.3.3 问卷............................. 17-18 
第四章 效果与评论............................. 18-32 
    4.1 讲堂中的缄默沉静现象............................. 18-19 
    4.2 访谈 .............................19-20 
    4.3 数据剖析............................. 20-26 
        4.3.1 教师的剖析............................. 20-21 
        4.3.2 学生的剖析 .............................21-25 
        4.3.3 讲堂环境方面 .............................25-26 
    4.4 评论............................. 26-32 
        4.4.1 教师............................. 26-29 
        4.4.2 学生............................. 29-32 
第五章 结论............................. 32-34 
    5.1 首要研讨发现............................. 32 
    5.2 教育启示............................. 32-33 
        5.2.1 对学生的启示............................. 32 
        5.2.2 对教师的启示............................. 32-33 
5.3 局限性 .............................33-34
 
结论
 
依据访谈和问卷查询,咱们得出以下结论:
1.教师要素和学生的讲堂缄默沉静教师的教育战略、讲堂安排才干、外交风格和师生联络在必定程度上影响学生参与讲堂互动并导致讲堂缄默沉静。
2.学生要素和学生的讲堂缄默沉静许多学生对参与讲堂互动重要性和讲堂缄默沉静的损害知道不行,形成了他们讲堂上不肯参与互动,别的,学生自身性情问题,例如:害臊、胆怯、短少自傲等,也是讲堂缄默沉静的一个重要方面。
3.讲堂环境要素和学生的讲堂缄默沉静在轻松、高兴的讲堂环境中,学生参与讲堂的活跃性高,讲堂缄默沉静现象少;在严峻、压抑讲堂气氛中,学生的学习爱好低,讲堂缄默沉静现象严峻。
研讨标明学生在讲堂上缄默沉静不语原因是多方面的,不同的学生有不同原因。讲堂上,一些部分学生因自身言语才干短少不敢讲话;一部分学生却受传统教育方式影响习气讲堂上坚持缄默沉静;还有些因性情问题不参与讲堂互动等。作为一名英语学习者,学生有必要理解自己在学习中遇到的问题和困难。问卷发现大部分学生都期望在学习中能得到教师的协助,假如学生能清楚地告诉教师他们的困难是什么,我信任困难必定会处理的。
 

优秀硕士英语论文范文篇七

 
第一章序言
 
1.1研讨的布景
北京林业大学的校园图书馆501室有200个座位,是一个独立的听音室。从2010年4月19号2010年4月29日笔者在501室做了一项查询。The investigation was carried out through two periods with thepurpose of looking into the utilization of this autonomous listening room, that was to say,what the students were actually doing there. And the results (see Appendix I for detail) gotfrom the survey were worrisome. The first period of this survey was conducted from April19th, 2010 to April 22nd, 2010, and altogether 1468 students came to the autonomouslistening room, but the number of the students who did unrelated business was 776, and theutilization rate of the autonomous listening room was only 47.1%. The second period ofthis survey was conducted from April 26th, 2010 to April 29th, 2010, and altogether 1908students came to the autonomous listening room. This time the number of students who didunrelated business was 1038, and the utilization rate of the Room 501 was only 45.6%.From the two periods of the survey, the author found that altogether 3376 students came tothe listening room, but actually only 1814 students among the total did the autonomouslistening. The rate of the whole utilization of the Room 501 was only 46.6%, and thatimplied 53.4% of the students, i.e. more than half of students did not do the listening, buteating, sleeping, talking with others, watching movies, playing games, playing withcell-phones, reading unrelated books, and so on.
The author analyzed the results and found the situation was alarming: on one hand, theresources of the school library were seriously wasted; and on the other hand, students'abilities of autonomous listening was unsatisfying. Because of all these reasons, the authordecides to do a research with the aim of improving the utilization of the autonomouslistening room and students' autonomous listening abilities.Among the five basic skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing, and translation) inEnglish learning, the author focuses on listening in this thesis. Listening is the inputprocess and it plays a significant role in education and daily communication. It also plays adefining part in facilitating language learning. Listening is an integrative skill and aprimary approach by which all incoming information is taken in. Rivers (1981) stated that75% of the acquired information came from listening and speaking, and 45% of the totalcommunication time was spent on listening. Krashen (1982) put forward his famous InputHypothesis which stressed that the ability to produce language was primarily based oncomprehensive input, i.e. through listening and reading. Thereby listening is an essentialskill and it plays an irreplaceable role in English learning.
 
1.2 Objective of the research研讨方针
Meta-cognitive strategy is a significant learning strategy and it plays an essential rolein English learning. In this study, the students are trained from three aspects: planningstrategy, monitoring strategy, and evaluating strategy. The final goal is to optimize theutilization of the autonomous listening room in the library of Beijing Forestry Universityand solve problems existing in the present autonomous listening.The study intends to explore whether the training of meta-cognitive strategy iseffective in improving learners' autonomous listening, and what the differences betweenthe students of the experimental group and the control group are as to the use ofmeta-cognitive strategy. In addition, measurements that can be done to improve the utilityof the autonomous listening room in the library of Beijing Forestry University are alsodiscussed.
 
Chapter Two    Literature Review文献回忆
 
2.1 Learner autonomy自主学习
It is not an easy task to define what learner autonomy is and no consensus what hasever been reached on it. Different researchers hold different views over it, Gardner &Miller (1999:5) stated that there were three reasons accounting for this difficulty:"First, different writers have defined the concept in different ways. Second, autonomy is an areaof ongoing debate and therefore definitions are continuing to mature as more discussions take place.Third, these concepts have developed independently in different geographical areas and therefore theyhave been defined using different (but often similar) terminologies."After going through the literature related to learner autonomy, we can find severaldefinitions from various angles. In some researchers' opinions, learner autonomy is a kindability or a capacity in one's blood; some believe that learner's actual exercises and theirattitudes are two factors which can not be ignored, while others view it as an action orperformance.
 
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 27-34 
    3.1 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 27 
    3.2 SUBJECTS 27-28 
    3.3 INSTRUMENTS 28-29 
        3.3.1 Questionnaires 28 
        3.3.2 Pre-test and post-test 28-29 
        3.3.3 Semi-structured interview 29 
    3.4 PROCEDURES OF THE STUDY 29-30 
    3.5 PROCEDURES OF THE TRAINING 30-32 
        3.5.1 Pre-training phase 30-31 
        3.5.2 On-training phase 31-32 
        3.5.3 Post-training phase 32 
    3.6 DATA ANALYSIS 32-33 
        3.6.1 Data analysis of tests 32 
    Summary 33-34 
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND ANALYSES 34-54 
    4.1 THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS 34-51 
    4.2 THE QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS 51-53 
    Summary 53-54 
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 54-59 
    5.1 FINDINGS OF THE RESEARCH 54-55 
    5.2 PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 55-57 
        5.2.1 Suggestions for teachers 55 
        5.2.2 Suggestions for the school 55-57 
    5.3 LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH 57 
5.4 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 57-58
 
Conclusion结论
 
The findings of the present study have answered the previous research questionsand put forward some implications for the utility of the autonomous listening room inBeijing Forestry University. However, since the present study is constrained by time,energy and technology, there are still some limitations in the present study that need tobe noticed in the future research.
1) The sample is based on the investigation of 113 students of non-Englishmajors from Beijing Forestry University. In other words, the study is carried out inone college; the circumstance occurs here might not happen in other schools.Therefore, to some extent, the sampling of the study is limited.
2) There are differences between individuals. This research is conducted with noconcern on the individual differences,
3) The training of meta-cognitive strategy leaves out consideration of the othertwo learning strategies: the cognitive strategy and social/affective strategy. Thestudents in experimental group have been trained by the same strategy and with thesame method, so it would receive better effect if the other two strategies were takeninto account.
4) The training period of meta-cognitive strategy is comparatively short. Besides,six months after the training, students in both experimental group and control grouptook part in CET-4. Passing rate of the experimental group was 90.91%, while thepassing rate of the control group was 86.21%. Whether the variation of the passingrates related to the training is unknown. That is to say, the subsequent variation whichtheir listening strategy will bring in the following semester has not been explored yet.
 

优秀硕士英语论文范文篇八

 
第一章序言
 
一、 研讨布景
在我国,英语是作为外语来学习的,所谓外语指的是“母语以外的,只在校园里学习并且在日常社会生活中很少有外交用途的言语。”这意味着学生取得英语的首要途径之一就是讲堂教育,因而教师的质量直接决议着学生的英语质量水平。正如叶澜教授指出的:学生生命质量的进步和教师生命质量的进步有着亲近的联络,学生的展开依赖于教师的自动展开。“年代向教育提出的应战不只仅数量的扩展或原有教育的修补与完善,它要求从头知道教育在社会中的方位与价值,从头建立教育方针,从头构建课程、从头规划教育的安排准则和办法准则,这全部的重建都触及教师展开问题。” 美国卡内基促进教育基金会上一任主席厄内斯特?波伊尔(EmesU.Boyer)指出“归根结底,谁更了解学生在讲堂上的情况呢?谁更能鼓舞学生呢?谁更能精确地点评每一个学生在学习方面的前进呢?除了教师谁更能创造一个真实的学习大家庭呢?毫无疑问,教师是搞好一所校园的要害。”一起在2011年出台的《国家中长期教育革新和规划大纲》中也向教师提出了新的要求,即教师要改动已有的人才培育观念、构建赋有立异的人才培育方式、教育质量点评和人才点评制度都要作出改动。这不只赋予我国教师专业化展开更为深化的内在,也对教师专业生长提出了更高的要求。
 
(二)根底教育
英语课程的方位英语作为我国根底教育阶段的一门根底性课程,其效果是为学生常识和才干的展开打下杰出根底;英语课程作为我国根底教育阶段的必修课程,这是年代对我国英语教育的要求,英语教育在我国国民教育中具有其它学科所不行代替的效果。英语教师是施行英语课程革新的要害,没有一支杰出的教师队伍,课程革新将是一句废话,因而课程革新对英语教师专业化水平提出了更高的要求,英语教师的专业生长问题再一次被摆到了杰出的方位。初中英语教师作为这个集体中一员,其专业生长具有共同性,因而初中英语教师这个集体理应遭到注重。
 
第二章文献总述
 
(一) 课程规范的相关文献
英语课程规范作为我国纲领性的文件,一贯备受研讨者的注重,笔者经过查阅相关文献,并经过整理发现已有的研讨根本上能够分为以下三类:关于某一时期的英语课程规范的研讨,关于英语课程规范(教育大纲)的比照研讨,以英语课程规范为布景进行相关元素的研讨。
 
1. 关于某一时期的英语课程规范的研讨
武一在《根底教育英语教育大纲的系统剖析》一文中对革新开放以来的课程规范从课程方针,教育要求,教材的演变,教育观念的演进进行了剖析,指出测验理论的改进是我国英语课程规范的一大前进,并指出现有的比方本质教育一贯落不到实处等问题,以期为课程革新的进一步执行作出评论。[4]戴卓在《范式变迁与1976年往后的高中教育大纲的革新》一文中从言语学,言语习得理论的展开来评论高中英语教育大纲革新,总结出了第二习得言语范畴范式改变是高中英语教育大纲革新的依据,二者之间存在一起性。
 
2. 关于英语课程规范的比照研讨
邹为诚在《世界根底阶段英语课程规范的比较研讨》一文中选用比较教育学的办法经过对美国、日本和我国等六部课程规范的剖析发现,日本课程规范,我国课程规范对外语中心才干和行为方针的出现描绘不行详细,需求更深化的描绘言语才干。高永亭在《1978年以来六部中学英语教育大纲和英语课程规范的比较研讨》一文中经过对课程方针,课程内容、课程施行、课程点评、课程性质五方面的比照剖析发现新课程规范的杰出特色,旨在使得读者对新课程规范有个清楚的知道,为新课程规范的广泛施行供给理论根底。周芬在《<我国英语课标>与<美国外语学习规范>的比照研讨》一文中针对中美两国课程规范的共性和差异进行了研讨,发现我国课程规范的共同之处在于注重情感教育,但也存在缺少之处,短少与其它学科的联络,讲堂外的英语注重程度不行等问题,最终作者经过实证调研企图为课程规范的完善提出了一些改进教育办法,加强教育练习的主张。
 
3. 以英语课程规范为布景进行相关元素的评论
笔者经过文献查阅发现,以英语新课程布景进行研讨的文献数量非常大,硕士论文比方苏州大学的刘洁《新课程规范下中小学英语教育联接的问题和对策研讨》、华东师范大学的顾玉琴《新课程规范下的英语教师专业展开》,东北师范大学赵昱的《新课程规范下中小学英语教育的联接研讨》等。期刊文献比方巫江惠《论新课程规范下初中英语情感教育的施行》一文经过剖析情感心情的界说和影响,提出了在新课程规范下施行情感教育的必要性,并提出了充分发挥教师的效果,促进学生战胜消沉情感,发扬活跃情感这三方面的办法。邵不朽的《英语新课程规范下教师人物的改动》一文立足于新课改的主体性精力需求,提出了英语教师应从七个视点即从注重教到注重学,重传授向重展开,重一起向重差异,重效果向重进程,重方式化教育向特性化教育,重单一信息向概括信息的传递改动。
 
第三章 对初中英语教师专业生长要求........................ 34-44 
    一、对初中英语教师专业生长的要求 ........................34-36 
    二、新课改前的课程规范........................36-40 
    三、初中英语教师专业生长的含义........................ 40-44 
第四章对初中英语教师专业生长要求........................ 44-50 
    一、根底教育课程革新........................44-46 
        (一) 根底教育课程革新........................ 44 
        (二) 新课程规范的新理念........................ 44-46 
    二、初中英语教师专业生长的要求........................ 46-49 
        (一) 专业理念........................ 46 
        (二) 常识结构........................ 46-47 
        (三) 才干结构........................ 47-48 
        (四) 自我专业生长的知道........................ 48-49 
    三、初中英语教师专业生长的含义 ........................49-50 
第五章 对初中英语课程规范的一点考虑 ........................50-58 
    一、教师专业生长的一条抱负途径 ........................50-51 
        (一) 课程规范同初中英语互为联络........................ 50 
        (二) 课程规范........................50-51 
    二、对初中英语课程规范的主张........................ 51-54 
        (一) 增加教师专业生长........................ 51 
        (二) 增加理论........................ 51-52 
        (三) 增加事例选择........................ 52 
        (四) 增加操作规范........................ 52-53 
        (五) 完善文本表达........................ 53-54 
        (六) 完善内容规范 ........................54 
三、生长抱负模型建构........................ 54-58
 
结论
 
教师在人类前史中扮演着非常重要的人物。伴随着本质教育的不断推动要求初中英语教师不断生长,怎么促进初中英语教师取得专业生长是当下的重心,依据这个意图本文展开了相关的研讨。本研讨包含了以下几个方面
一、初中英语教师专业生长是指初中英语终身学习的进程,是一个构成教育智慧的进程,是一个经过各种英语教育专业的练习,取得从事初中英语教育有必要的专业常识,专业才干,更新教师信仰,不断前进英语素养的进程,即初中英语教师专业结构不断完善的进程。
二、依据已有的研讨结合初中英语学科的特色开始构建了初中英语教师的专业结构。
三、课程规范作为一个外在的文件影响着初中英语教师专业生长,课程方针是课程规范的逻辑起点,课程内容直接指向课程方针。因而笔者首要从课程方针和课程内容两个方面详细剖析了 9部课程规范对初中英语教师专业生长的影响,并就九部课程规范对初中英语教师专业生长的含义做了剖析。
四、经过前几章的剖析,依据课程规范的初中英语教师专业生长对初中英语教师的专业生长是有含义的,课程规范成为初中英语教师专业生长的一条抱负途径。
但在研讨的一起咱们也发现依据课程规范的初中英语教师专业生长,课程规范是中心,为了使得课程规范更好的促进初中英语教师的专业生长,笔者从两个视点即课程规范自身和外部要素提出了相应主张,构建了依据课程规范的初中英语教师专业生长的抱负模型,然后使得课程规范能够更好的促进初中英语教师的专业生长。
初中英语教师专业生长是当时教育和未来教育中迫切需求处理的一个问题。关于初中英语教师专业生长的研讨点还有许多,依据课程规范的初中英语教师专业生长是完结教师专业生长的一条抱负途径,依据自身学历和才干有限未能挖掘出更深化的东西。往后笔者应加强理论的学习,此外本研讨局限于一个理论的研讨,往后笔者将在此根底上进行相关的实证研讨,以期为课程规范成为初中英语教师专业生长的抱负途径寻觅更广阔的根底和对本文抱负模型建构的实用性作出验证。
 

优秀硕士英语论文范文篇九

 
1. 简介
 
1.1研讨内容
本章首要经过对英语学习者的查询以及研讨,来评论计算机辅助教育方式下,英语学习者在逻辑性思想方面的才干是否有所进步,以及影响学习者的外界要素和内部要素,An activity or action which is carried out as the result of processing orunderstanding language (i.e. as a response). For example: drawing a map while listeningto a tape, listening to an instructions and performing a command, may be referred to astasks. Tasks may or may not involve the production of language. A task usuallyrequired the teaching to specify what will be regarded as successful completion of thetask. The use of a variety of different kinds of tasks in language teaching is said to makelanguage teaching more communicative… since it provides a purpose for a classroomactivity which goes beyond the practice of language for its own sake (Crystal,D, 1991).From this definition, we can say the author take a pedagogical perspective. Tasksare defines in terms of what the learners will do in class rather than the world outsidethe classroom. The third definition comes from Breen. Breen (1987:23) describes thetask as follow:…any structured language learning endeavor which has a particular objective,appropriate content, a specified working procedure, and a range of outcome for thosewho undertake the task. “Task” is therefore assumed to refer to a range of work planswhich have the overall purposes of facilitating language learning- from the simple andbrief exercise type, to more complex and lengthy activities such as groupproblem-solving or simulations and decision-making.
A task is an activity in which: meaning is primary; there is some communicationproblem to solve; there is some sort of relationship to comparable real-world activities;task completion has some priority; the assessment of the task is in terms of outcome.For all the definition above , David Nunan (1991) concluded that these definitionsall emphasize the fact that tasks involve communicative language use in which theusers’ attention id focused on meaning rather than grammatical form while thesedefinitions vary somewhat. Finally Nunan (1989) defines a task in the following way:A task is a piece of classroom work that involves learners in comprehending,manipulating, producing or interacting in the target language while their attention isfocused on mobilizing their grammatical knowledge in order to express meaning, and inwhich the intention is to convey meaning rather than to manipulate form.He also gives a clear definition as: the task is a piece of meaning- focused workinvolving learners in comprehending, producing, and/or interacting in the target language, and that tasks are analyzed or categorized according to their goals, input data,activities, setting and roles (David Nunan ,1989). Nunan’s book Designing Tasks forCommunicative Classroom symbolized for the task- based language teaching in theclassroom.
 
Chapter Two Literature Review 文献总述
 
Many language teaching experts have tried to find out what elements constitute atask. David Nunan (1989) thinks that a task has such six elements as goals, input,activities, role of teacher, role of learner and setting. He explains the features of thesesix elements respectively as follows: goal: exchanging personal information; input: thematerials that the learners work on; activities: what learners actually do with the input;teacher role: monitor and facilitator; learner role: conversational partner; setting:classroom/ pair work.Skehan (1996) distinguish three aspects of learner goal: accuracy, fluency andcomplexity. Firstly, accuracy refers to the learners’ ability to perform the level ofinterlanguage complexity they have learned. Secondly, Fluency concerns the learnersability to mobilize an interlanguage system to communicate meaning in real time.Finally, complexity is concerned with the elaboration of the underlying interlanguagesystem. Skehan (1996) highlights the necessity of the three areas in communication.The deficiency in any one may lead to unsuccessful communication.As for input, task-based input consists of teachers’ instruction and the material inthe text. Before the task is carried out, teachers should offer students enough relatedinformation so that the students are clear about what they will do. Task-based inputprovide games, role plays, simulations and task-based communication activities forcommunicative classroom teaching.
As for the definition of ESP, experts have their different explanations. Since ESPcame onto being in the 1960s, definitions of ESP have been found in the literature.Although a frequent term among linguists and language teachers, ESP’s exact meaningor references scope is still varied in the eyes of ESP researchers. Here, four influentialdefinitions will be quoted in order to provide a rich understanding of the definition ofESP.
(1) Hutchinson& Waters (1987) see ESP as an approach to language teachingrather than a product, by which they mean that ESP does not involve a particular kind oflanguage, teaching materials or methodology. They suggest that “the foundation of theESP is the simple question: Why does this learner need to learn a foreign language?” theanswer to this question relates to the learners, the language required as well as thelearning context, and thus establishes the primacy of need in ESP. Need is defined bythe reasons for which the students is learning English, which will vary from studypurposes to work purposes. These purposes are the starting points that determine thatthe language be taught.Hutchinson and Waters’ definition of ESP is a little bit abstract and general,although learners’ needs are stressed greatly. From their description, it is hard to get afull clear picture of ESP except that we know ESP is closely related to needs and needsanalysis.
(2) Pauline Robinson’s (1991:32) also accepts the primacy of needs analysis indefining ESP. Her definition is based on two key defining criteria and a number ofcharacteristics that are generally found to be true of ESP. Her key criteria are:
 
Chapter 3 Research Methodology .............................34-40 
    3.1 Participants and Experimenters............................. 34-35 
    3.2 Materials .............................35-36 
    3.3 Procedure .............................36-40 
        3.3.1 Experiment 1: Production .............................36-37 
        3.3.2 Experiment 2: Perception............................. 37-39 
        3.3.3 Experiment 3: Phonological Similarity .............................39-40 
Chapter 4 Results .............................40-49 
    4.1 Production Task............................. 40-42 
    4.2 Perception Task............................. 42-44 
    4.3 Word Similarity Task .............................44-46 
    4.4 Analysis of the Three Factors............................. 46 
4.5 Analysis of the Two Potential Factors .............................46-49
 
Conclusion结论
 
d principles of task-based language teaching were explained in chapter 2. In chapter 5,the author tried to implement the theory of task-based language teaching into legalEnglish teaching. And one sample unit of task-based language teaching is presented.In chapter 4, the data collected from the investigation have been presented andinterpreted. The results have exposed some of the important problems with legalEnglish teaching in universities in Chongqing and displayed, at least partly, the statusquo of legal English teaching in universities in Chongqing in front of us. The problemsexiting in legal English teaching call for a new reform in the teaching methodology. Theauthor suppose that what ought to be done first of all is to improve teachingmethodology in the class. Based on various problems exposed in legal English teachingand features of task-based language teaching, the author suggests that task-basedlanguage teaching be used in it.
Legal English belongs to the area of ESP. In order to understand legal Englishbetter, definition of ESP, classification of ESP, and origin of ESP have been presented inchapter 2. Based on the understanding of ESP, the present study discussed legal English,including its definition, history development, characteristics. Legal English teaching,which is one important focus in this paper, has been discussed in chapter 2 as well,tracing its origin and development in the United States and China.
 

优秀硕士英语论文范文篇十

 
第一章 序言
 
第一节 研讨缘起
国民本质取决于教育,特别是根底教育,所以各国政府将根底教育的展开视为习惯全球化应战的战略方针,与国家的出路和民族的命运紧密联络在一起,于是根底教育的革新运动在世界范围内逐步鼓起。全球性的根底教育课程革新促进我国从头审视自身的根底教育课程系统,由于“固有的常识本位、学科本位问题没有得到根本的改动,所发生的损害影响至深,这与年代对人的要求构成了极大的反差”、“传统的应试教育势力强壮,本质教育不能真实得到执行”等原因的存在,形成我国的根底教育课程却处于滞后的状态(朱慕菊,2007: 7-8)。在世纪之交之际,我国新一轮根底教育课程革新正式启动,2001 年 6 月 8 日,教育部印发了本次革新的辅导性文件—《根底教育课程革新大纲(试行)》,其间明确提出了“活跃开发并合理使用校表里各种课程资源。校园应充分发挥图书馆、试验室、专用教室及各类教育设施和实践基地的效果;广泛使用校外的图书馆、博物馆、展览馆、科技馆、工厂、乡村、部队和科研院所等各种社会资源以及丰厚的自然资源;活跃使用并开发信息化课程资源”(教育部,2001)。由于“没有课程资源的广泛支撑,再美好的课程革新想象也难变成中小学的实践教育效果,由于课程资源的丰厚性和适切性程度决议着课程方针的完结范围和完结水平”(钟启泉,崔云漷,张华,2001:402)。作为本次根底教育课程革新要点之一的英语课程革新的指南,教育部最新制订了《义务教育英语课程规范》(2011 年版),将“丰厚课程资源,拓宽英语学习渠道”作为英语课程革新的根本理念,并提出相应的“课程资源开发与使用的主张”。
新课改到今日已有十年时刻,课程资源开发与使用的理论不断得到更新和完善。但是在开发与使用的实践进程中,乡村初中存在的问题日益显着,成为许多学者研讨的课题。其间以乡村初中英语课程资源的开发与使用作为方针的研讨大多从宏观、全体的视点动身,而以微观为视角,特别是经过对乡村初中英语听力课程资源开发与使用的现状查询而进行的研讨少之又少,这充分体现了乡村初中英语听力课程资源开发与使用现状研讨的迫切性。
 
第二节 研讨意图与含义
 
一、 研讨意图
首要,本研讨评论英语听力课程资源及其开发与使用的相关理论关于英语听力课程资源开发与使用的实践启示。随后,本研讨经过问卷查询、访谈的办法剖析了解现在乡村初中英语听力课程资源在开发与使用的实践中存在的问题,企图提出处理问题的主张以改进乡村初中英语听力课程资源开发与使用的现状,并丰厚课程资源开发与使用的理论。
 
第二章 文献总述
 
第一节 课程资源的概念
研讨国外对课程资源的概念研讨由来已久, Dewey 为了与教育科学的内容进行区别,提出了“教育科学的资源”(赵祥麟,王承绪,2006:211)的概念,指出契合科学的“某些效果”就是教育者使用的教育科学的资源,并将教育进程作为资源。后来 Dewey,(1902:5-12)提出教育进程由学习者、社会和有安排的学科三个根本要素组成。“活动剖析法”倡导者博比特(F.Bobbitt)在《怎样编制课程》(How to Make a Curriculum)一书论述了课程编制的步骤,从中能够将课程资源的概念概括为能够被剖析为各种活动,与校园教育相关、且能到达教育方针的不同范畴内的人类经历。“过错剖析法或困难剖析法”倡导者 Charters(1923:80,82,75)以为课程的内容由抱负和活动构成,课程编制的意图不是完结教育方针,而是战胜在完结教育方针的进程中遇到的过错与困难,并剖析学生活动中抱负的运用情况,所以在他看来课程资源是战胜在完结教育方针的进程中遇到的过错与困难的各种学生活动和活动中所要运用的抱负。国内对课程资源研讨只是只要十年之久,课程资源的概念研讨根本上从课程方针、课程编制、课程活动、校园课程、教育进程五个视点动身别离做出界定,没有构成一起的概念。
从课程方针的视点进行研讨,吴刚平(2001:24)将课程资源界说为有利于完结课程方针的各种要素。从课程编制的视点进行研讨,徐继存、段兆兵、陈琼(2002:1)将课程资源界说为整个课程编制进程中能够使用的全部人力、物力以及自然资源的总和。从课程活动的视点研讨,范兆雄(2002:101)提出课程资源是在课程活动中,全部能够直接成为课程活动内容或支撑课程活动进行的物质和非物质。从校园课程的视点研讨,范蔚(2002:32)提出课程资源是指全部能够转化为校园课程或服务于校园课程的条件。从教育进程的视点研讨,周广强(2004:18)提出课程资源是指师生在教育进程中用来完结学习活动的全部学习条件。国外对课程资源的概念研讨是经过在长时刻的教育教育进程、课程编制进程等实践中沉淀和总结的理论效果,其科学性和合理性为国内的研讨起到了启示效果。国内的根底教育课程革新刚刚过去十年,比较老练的概念研讨根本是上面五种,尽管这些理论没有经过足够的实践检验,但在必定程度上反映了我国课程革新的实践效果,对本文对英语听力课程资源的概念研讨有必定的参考价值。
 
第三章 研讨规划................................ 22-72 
    第一节 研讨内容与办法................................ 22-23 
        一、 研讨内容 ................................22-23 
        二、 研讨办法................................ 23 
    第二节 理论研讨 ................................23-39 
        一、课程资源的理论根底................................ 23-25 
        二、课程资源开发与使用的理论根底................................ 25-31 
        三、 相关理论对资源开发与使用的启示 ................................31-39 
    第三节 实证研讨 ................................39-72 
        一、 查询问卷的数据计算与剖析................................ 39-70 
        二、 访谈 ................................70-72 
第四章 研讨结论与启示................................ 72-80 
    第一节资源开发与使用存在的问题................................ 72-74 
    第二节 问题原因剖析................................ 74-76 
        一、 主观原因................................ 74-75 
        二、 客观原因 ................................75-76 
    第三节课程资源开发与使用的启示................................ 76-80 
第五章 结语 ................................80-82 
    第一节 小结................................ 80 
    第二节 本研讨的缺少之处................................ 80 
    第三节 有待研讨的问题 ................................80-82
 
结论
 
(一) 学生应自动地向家长说明英语听力课程资源资源开发与使用对英语学习的重要性,并一起考虑家长的财力情况,在财力允许的范围内寻求家长的支撑。
(二) 校园为英语教师和学生供给一个杰出的沟通平台,鼓舞家长活跃参与家长见面会,注重家长见面会的质量,将课程资源的开发与使用作为家长会评论的要点之一,沟通彼此之间的关于英语听力课程资源开发与使用的主张。这样能够一方面使家长对学生购买英语听力课程资源进行理性的资金支撑,一起在家中催促学生进行资源的开发与使用。例如,确保学生有必定的时刻经过电视节目、播送或网络观看和收听英语节目,监督学生使用资金去书店等场所购买英语听力学习材料。
(三)英语教师与学生的沟通至关重要。英语教师能够经过沟通了解学生所短缺的、感爱好的和契合学生需求的英语听力课程资源和开发与使用英语听力课程资源的进程中存在的问题,向学生提出主张。这样能够一起前进学生和英语教师开发与使用英语听力课程资源的针对性和合理性。

文章标题:《优秀硕士英语论文范文精选十篇》,原文地址:,如有转载请标明出处,谢谢。

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