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公共服务领域英文译写规范_英语毕业论文

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Abstract


Since the reform and opening up, China's foreign exchanges have become more and more frequent, which has attracted more and more foreigners to live in China. The translation of public signs is becoming more and more important, and it has a great influence on all aspects of cross-cultural communication in China. At present, most scholars do not have a very comprehensive and complete understanding of it, so our country's research on public signs is not unsystematic. In 2017, “Guidelines For the Use of English in Public Service Areas”(referred to as GB/T 30240) was published, which was of great significance for the standardization and use of public signs. Therefore, this paper discusses the linguistic features of public signs in order to promote the study of public signs in general. According to the content of GB/T 30240, the translation of public signs has obvious features, functions and facilities information, warning information, limit prohibiting information, indicating instruction information, indicating the prompting message, etc., which were suited for the translation principle of literal translation, domestication and parataxis. Although the purpose of this translation strategy is to make it easier for foreigners to understand, the translation tendency is relatively hard for the translator, and if the translator's level is not enough, it can easily lead to mistranslations of public signs. Therefore, in the future translation of public signs, the translator must follow the principle of faithfulness and consistency.


Key Words:  GB/T 30240; public signs; translation principle


摘  要


自改革开放以来,我国的对外交流日益频繁,这吸引了越来越多的外国人来中国生活,公示语的翻译变得越来越重要,它对于我国跨文化交流的方方面面都有重大的影响。目前,大部分学者对它也没有非常全面、完整的认识,所以我国对于公示语的研究并未不系统。2017年出台的《公共服务领域英文译写规范》对于公示语的规范与使用具有重要的意义,因此,本文以它为研究对象来探讨公示语的语言特点,以期能够从整体上推进公示语的研究。从GB/T 30240 《规范》的内容来看,公示语的翻译有较为明显的特征,《规范》的功能设施信息、警示警告信息、限令禁止信息、指示指令信息、说明提示信息等内容较为偏重直译、归化、意合的翻译原则。虽然这种翻译策略选择的目的是让外国人更容易理解,但是,这种翻译倾向对于译者的要求较高,如若译者的水平不高,它很容易带来公示语的误译。因此,在今后遇到公示语的翻译中,译者必须遵循忠实性原则和连贯原则。


关键词:《公共服务领域英文译写规范》;公示语;翻译规则


Abstract


Since the reform and opening up, China's foreign exchanges have become more and more frequent, which has attracted more and more foreigners to live in China. The translation of public signs is becoming more and more important, and it has a great influence on all aspects of cross-cultural communication in China. At present, most scholars do not have a very comprehensive and complete understanding of it, so our country's research on public signs is not unsystematic. In 2017, “Guidelines For the Use of English in Public Service Areas”(referred to as GB/T 30240) was published, which was of great significance for the standardization and use of public signs. Therefore, this paper discusses the linguistic features of public signs in order to promote the study of public signs in general. According to the content of GB/T 30240, the translation of public signs has obvious features, functions and facilities information, warning information, limit prohibiting information, indicating instruction information, indicating the prompting message, etc., which were suited for the translation principle of literal translation, domestication and parataxis. Although the purpose of this translation strategy is to make it easier for foreigners to understand, the translation tendency is relatively hard for the translator, and if the translator's level is not enough, it can easily lead to mistranslations of public signs. Therefore, in the future translation of public signs, the translator must follow the principle of faithfulness and consistency.


Key Words:  GB/T 30240; public signs; translation principle






摘  要


自改革开放以来,我国的对外交流日益频繁,这吸引了越来越多的外国人来中国生活,公示语的翻译变得越来越重要,它对于我国跨文化交流的方方面面都有重大的影响。目前,大部分学者对它也没有非常全面、完整的认识,所以我国对于公示语的研究并未不系统。2017年出台的《公共服务领域英文译写规范》对于公示语的规范与使用具有重要的意义,因此,本文以它为研究对象来探讨公示语的语言特点,以期能够从整体上推进公示语的研究。从GB/T 30240 《规范》的内容来看,公示语的翻译有较为明显的特征,《规范》的功能设施信息、警示警告信息、限令禁止信息、指示指令信息、说明提示信息等内容较为偏重直译、归化、意合的翻译原则。虽然这种翻译策略选择的目的是让外国人更容易理解,但是,这种翻译倾向对于译者的要求较高,如若译者的水平不高,它很容易带来公示语的误译。因此,在今后遇到公示语的翻译中,译者必须遵循忠实性原则和连贯原则。


关键词:《公共服务领域英文译写规范》;公示语;翻译规则


1. Introduction

The use of the public language is extensive, and it has a huge impact on all aspects of our social life. From its definition, in a broad sense, it refers to the content displayed on the signs in public places. The purpose is to convey a variety of functions, such as propaganda, information and warnings. In the narrow sense, it is a kind of concise language with certain public meaning and service meaning. The language is often used in the form of diagrams or symbols, and sometimes it can be a union of multiple means of expression, to achieve its particular social function. It is generally believed that the public signs are indicative, suggestible, restrictive and compulsory.(戴宗显,吕和发 40-44)

The public signs in China's service areas need to define and standardize the following aspects: names of public and institutions, specific terms, generic terms, public service information. “Guidelines For the Use of English in Public Service Areas”(referred to as GB/T 30240)  published in December 2017, It covers the principles of English translation and writing in 13 service areas, including transportation, tourism, cultural entertainment, sports, education, medical and health care, postal telecommunication, catering and accommodation, and commercial finance. The standard translation is as high as 3,500 items.

Before the introduction of GB/T30240, the translation of public signs in our country's public service sector was varied, and the status of derangement was directly related to the unclear identity of public signs, the lack of legal guarantee, the lack of clear translation standards and the management of long positions. The introduction of GB/T30240, the first is to set national standards for the translation and writing codes of public signs, and provide translation methods and specifications for reference; the second is to put forward the principles of English translation and writing in the field of public service. Therefore, it is necessary to study GB/T30240. It is obvious 

that these studies deepen people’s understandings of Dick Diver and help the future research on The author has reviewed the relevant researches on public signs in CNKI. In summary, the research on public signs in China mainly focuses on the following aspects:

(1) Discussion on the overall study of public signs. Its research ideas include: from different theoretical perspectives to the discussion of the public language translation strategies, such as text theory (王运长,2015), the skopos theory (康菲,2017), adaptation (胡荣,2017;张慧,2009), functional translation theory (陈庚,2016;罗婳,2012;伍艺,2011), memetics (孙建英,2016;李莉,2012;徐静,2012), behavioral theory ( 窦茹,2014), cognitive framework (朱曼婷,2013), cross-cultural perspective (胡丹,2011), relevance theory ( 虞晓颖,2014;肖婷,2012), social semiotics (王韶凡,2013), reception aesthetics (林丽凤,2010;易彩纯,2009;姜丽,2008)etc. Function characteristics of public signs (王青,73-74;徐曼,144-146), language features to explore the English translation of public signs (黄婷婷,31-32+96;袁琼,117-120;代唯良、王晓林,80-83;施建华,52-55;杨丽波、夏望秋,93-94), such as Wang Qing, Xu Man, Huang Tingting, Yuan Qiong, Jian Hua and other scholars have discussed this problem; Study the translation strategies of public signs from the perspective of mistranslations, such as scholars Zhou Xuelian, Wu Manling, Zeng Huailin's thesis, etc.(吴曼凌,2014;曾怀琳,2013;周学莲,2011)


(2) Study of English translation of public signs in a specific field and region. Its research ideas include: to explore the English translation strategies of public signs from different theoretical perspectives, such as textual theory (强耿,2017;马娟娟,2016;田亚亚,2014), the principle of easy writing(王宇,2017), ecological translation ( 谢娟娟,2015), functional theory (卞靓,2013;陈丽,2012), translation aesthetics (刘亚兰,2013), cross-cultural communication (李立胜,2010), reception aesthetics (孙探春,2017), etc. To explore the translation strategies of public signs in a certain field, such as the scholar Zhao Yujiao et al. discussed this problem (赵月娇,2014); From the perspective of mistranslations, this paper studies the translation strategies of public signs, such as scholars Jiang Rong, Tan Jing, Sheng Xue-ying's thesis, etc. (姜蓉,2013;谭静,2011;盛雪滢,2010)


The translation of Chinese and English public signs is a window of our country's external publicity, and its English translation effect is of great significance for promoting the international image of China and promoting the external communication and economic cooperation of our country. The public signs is an applied style that has emerged since the reform and opening up, and most scholars have no comprehensive and complete understanding of it, so our country's research on public signs is not unsystematic. In this paper, we can not have a comprehensive grasp of the whole, but try to study the linguistic features of Chinese public signs. Guidelines For the Use of English in Public Service Areas in 2017 is of great importance, therefore, this paper takes it as the research object to study the language characteristics of signs, in order to promote the public language study as a whole.


2. English Translation Features of GB/T 30240 

In this chapter, the content of GB/T30240 will be classified according to the three translation strategies: literal translation and free translation, domestication and alienation, conformation and ideation. These three translation rules mainly focus on the content and form of translation, and literal translation and free translation only refer to the superficial layer of the translation content. Both of them put the original content in the first place and the source language as the center, but there is a difference between them: the form of fidelity to the original text is still not confined to the form of the original text (王璨,101-103). Domestication and alienation are the extension of literal translation and free translation. (王东风在《归化与异化:矛与盾的交锋》一文中说到“异化与归化可看成直译和意译概念的延伸,但并不完全等同于直译与意译。如果说直译与意译是语言层次的讨论,那么,异化和归化则是将语言层次的讨论延续升格至文化、诗学和政治层面。也就是说,直译和意译之争的靶心是意义和形式的得失问题,而异化和归化之争的靶心则是处在意义和形式得失旋涡中的文化身份、文学性乃至话语权利的得失问题。”它涉及的内容更广泛,它是在文化层面上对源语和目的语进行选择,“直译与异化是以源语为中心的,意译与归化是以目的语为中心的。但是直译意译是在语言层面上对形式和意义谁更重要做出选择,而异化归化是在文化层面上对源语和目的语进行选择。”王璨,101+103). Conformation and ideation prefer to the form of translation, which pay more attention to in the language of the  logic of translation, the linguistic logic of conformation is linear, a tree structure, language logic of ideation is nonlinear, a beaded structure. (著名翻译家、散文家孙家晋曾说过,“西文像树上分出枝桠,中文如铜钿串在一起。真是一语道破天机。印欧语言是以形合为主的语言,有人称之为线性的语言,其句法以主谓结构为中轴线;如果有宾语或补语成分,可在主线上延伸;定语及状语成分则以枝桠的形式构成分支线,并通过关联词与主轴线相接。这种树状结构由于主谓结构形成了对全句‘牵一发而动全身’的提挈性结构主轴,因而各支的脉路都一目了然,枝枝桠桠都必有归宿。如果把句的结构比喻成一棵树,那么句与句、段落与段落之间彼此关联、相得益彰,构成了密密挨挨的树林。”王璨,101-103).


Translation methods Literal translation and free translation Domestication and alienation Conformation and ideation

Classification Focus on the content of translation Focus on the form of translation

Difference It only refers to the superficial layer of translation: to put the original content in the first place and focus on the source language. 

Literal translation :Faithful to the original form.

Free translation:not applied for the form. It involves a wide range of content, which is the choice of source language and target language on the cultural level.

Domestication: focus on localizing content.

Alienation: focus on the content into the translation of foreign culture. It pays more attention to it in language logic. Conformation’s logic hypotaxis language is linear, a tree structure;

ideation’s language logic and parataxis is nonlinear, a beaded structure

Based on it, it is concluded that the content of GB/T30240 has the following characteristics: 

(1) In general, GB/T30240 of the functions and facilities information, warning messages, restrictions on information, instructions, instructions and information prefer to literal translation, which types of information focuses more on the content of the original text. Such as: In Traffic (2) chapter, function facilities information "收费公路" translated into "Toll Road/Tollway, alarm warning message" 双向交通 "translated into" Two - Way Traffic ", restrictions prohibit information "禁止机动车驶入" translated into "No Motor Vehicles", instruction message "入口预告" translated into "Entrance Ahead", indicating instruction information "靠右侧道路行驶" translated into "keep right", The term "航班信息" is translated into "flight information". However, 

in some areas, the instruction information also has free translation. For example, in the chapter of tourism, "请爱护景区设施" translated into " please show respect for public facilities", and "爱护" is translated into "show respect for", so that the foreign tourists can better understand the meaning of this instruction.

(2) In GB/T30240, some of the translations of the nouns that have history and cultural significance, are more heavily weighted to the domestication translation. For example, in the chapter of tourism (3), GB/T30240 clearly suggests that the names of scenic spots should be based on different situations, and different translation methods should be adopted, such as "佛塔" translated into "Pagoda"; "舍利" translated into "Stupa/ Dagoba"; Other towers, such as "广播电视塔" is translated into radio and TV tower. This translation is integrated into the local characteristics. Since the temple and pagoda in China represent different cultural origins, the translation of pagodas and stupas is not consistent, which is the domestication translation and presents local culture. However, in GB/T30240, it is also involved in the translation of alienation, such as the translation of the tower, and the different radio and television towers, which are different from that of the pagodas and the stupa, which is the same as the foreign tower, which is also imported from abroad, so it adopts the alienation translation to facilitate the understanding of foreigners.

(3) In the form of translation, the functions and facilities information, warning messages, restrictions information, instructions information in GB/T30240 are more likely to be translated by conformation. The translation is more focused on the actual meaning of the language, so that the instructions can be understood immediately. Its language is concise, and it has practical significance, and its purpose is obvious. For example, in the chapter of tourism, the instruction information "防洪通道,请勿占用" is directed to "flood control channel/keep clear". In the chapter of culture and entertainment (4), the service information “上线(影片)” is translated as "playing in theaters", and “非演职人员请勿入内;观众止步” is translated as "Performers and staff only"; In the chapter of sports, "not for sale" is translated into "not for sale". However, it also exists in the form of translation, such as in the chapter of tourism, “原路返回”is translated as "return by the way you came",“宠物便后请打扫干净” is translated as "please clean up after your pet", and the two examples are adjusted, the first one adopts the inverted structure, and the second attributive is 

different from the Chinese word order.


3.Based on GB/T30240, The Mistranslations of Public Signs and Its Causes and Countermeasures

According to the content of GB/T 30240, the translation of public signs has obvious characteristics. It attaches more importance to the translation principle of literal translation, domestication and ideation, and the purpose of this translation strategy is to make it easier for foreigners to understand. However, this kind of translation tendency is relatively hard for the translator, and if the translator's level is not enough, it can easily lead to mistranslations of public signs.

3.1 Performance of mistranslation 

The mistranslation mainly displays in: vocabulary used improperly, because of the morphemes or words caused by improper use of mistranslation(some are short of morphemes such as complex morphemes and some are not used properly, there are many synonyms and near synonyms in English, but these words are not completely the same, they are in place there are nuances, some emotional color is different, some applicable occasions), misuse of syntax, semantic and pragmatic misuse. 

3.2 Causes of mistranslation

Most of these mistranslations are caused by the simple pursuit of the correspondence between Chinese and English texts, while ignoring the features of English itself and the functional equivalence of translation. The translation is that the source language is created in another language, and since it's created, it can't be done in a single step, especially with the specific use of a specific language translation. On the basis of the translation, we can test it repeatedly from the following three levels. Most cases of Thomas mistranslation morpheme words of reason can be attributed to the linguistics, syntax and semantic and pragmatic level, so from the perspective of chinese-english conversions to verify the accuracy of the translation. If there is a contradiction between the 

morpheme vocabulary, syntax and semantic pragmatics, the first language is the most important, because it is the essential purpose of translation, and secondly, to ensure the correct syntax, it is to choose the appropriate words again, and try to keep the consistency of the semantics. Due to the differences between Chinese and western cultures, semantic consistency is often abandoned in the translation of public signs. In terms of pragmatics, syntax, and morpheme words, if the translation violates any one of these levels, we can find a more appropriate version from this level until the translation achieves the best results. 

3.3 Countermeasures

As a publicity material in public, the language of public signs should be simple and clear and easy to understand. The public signs that the public and tourists often come into contact with are public facilities and services with high frequency of use. In order to embody simplicity, the public signs in many developed countries use graphics or abbreviations directly, which is the content and intention of users to express the public signs in the shortest time, so as to serve as prompts, instructions and warnings. As a public toilet, parking lot, road signs, etc.

In the future, the translator must follow the following principles:  

3.3.1 Faithful to the original 

The principle of fidelity requires that in translation, the participants in the translation process are responsible for the coordination of all parties. It refers to the consistent between the original and the translation should exist interlingual coherence, the translation should be faithful to the original, loyal degree and form, by the translation purpose and one for the understanding of the original. Its requirement is that the original text should be consistent with the translation, that is, faithful to the original text, but the degree and form of faithfulness will be determined by the translation purpose and the translator's understanding of the original text. The translation must be understood by the recipient and meaningful in the culture of the target language and the communicative environment of the use of the target language, thus producing effective communication effects. 


3.3.2 Consistency principle

The coherence of the language is secondary to the coherence of the language, both of which are based on the meaning of the original text. This kind of coherence should be centered on the readers of the target language, taking into full consideration the differences between the readers of the source language and the readers of the target language, so as to determine whether the readers can accept the standard of the translation. Otherwise, the existence of public signs and the Chinese-English translation of public services will lose their meaning.


4.Conclusion

Since the reform and opening up, China's foreign exchanges have become more and more frequent, which has attracted more and more foreigners to live in China. The translation of public signs is becoming more and more important, and it has a great influence on all aspects of cross-cultural communication in China. At present, most scholars do not have a very comprehensive and complete understanding of it, so our country's research on public signs is not unsystematic. In 2017, “Guidelines For the Use of English in Public Service Areas”(referred to as GB/T 30240) was published, which was of great significance for the standardization and use of public signs. Therefore, this paper discusses the linguistic features of public signs in order to promote the study of public signs in general. According to the content of GB/T 30240, the translation of public signs has obvious features, functions and facilities information, warning information, limit prohibiting information, indicating instruction information, indicating the prompting message, etc., which were suited for the translation principle of literal translation, domestication and parataxis. Although the purpose of this translation strategy is to make it easier for foreigners to understand, the translation tendency is relatively hard for the translator, and if the translator's level is not enough, it can easily lead to mistranslations of public signs. Therefore, in the future translation of public signs, the translator must follow the principle of faithfulness and consistency.

  

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