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中国政府数据开放困境研究

站外转载   发布时间:2019-08-03   [点击量:58]  


 中文摘要
  
  随着大数据时代的到来,各国政府拥有了丰富的公共数据,开始谋求从信息公开走向数据开放。与此同时,公众也已不满足于政府信息公开,转而要求更深层次的、更基础性的数据开放,以赢得更多的政府公共信息与服务资源。于是旨在推动有利于提高政府决策与公共服务水平、更利于资源利用和政民互动的政府数据开放成为大势所趋,亦成为行政管理和大数据研究领域重点关注的课题。

  
  数据开放起源于美国民间运动,随后在欧美等国的推动下政府数据开放席卷全球,中国也紧跟世界步伐,继在 2012 年 6 月首个政府数据开放平台--上海市政府数据服务网开通之后,2015 年国务院印发《促进大数据发展行动纲要》(国发〔2015〕50 号),明确提出“要形成公共数据开放共享的法规制度和政策体系,在 2018 年底前建成国家政府数据统一平台,2020 年底前逐步实现民生保障服务相关理论的政府数据集向社会开放”1,开启了公共数据开放行动。公共数据开放首先应该由政府来主导,由此,各省市政府数据开放将陆续进入快车道。与欧美发达国家相比,中国政府数据开放仍处于起步阶段,无论是理论研究还是实践探索层面都有相当大的差距。虽然中国政府已经深刻地认识到大力推行政府数据开放是进一步提升资源利用率的重要手段,是有效提高公共政策透明度与增强政府和公众之间有效沟通、交流、反馈的基本路径,是实现政府公共服务均等化及包容化的重要手段。但是,政策法规、数据资源整合、各方参与及管理机制等方面存在的问题严重制约着政府数据开放的范围、程度和进度。有鉴于此,本文在分析、借鉴欧美发达国家政府数据开放的研究成果和实践经验的基础上,厘清了政府数据开放的内涵、外延和属性、特点,进而在分析中国政府数据开放的现实状况与面临问题的前提下,有针对性地提出了推动中国政府数据开放发展的相应策略,希望能够对我国政府数据开放的有效实施有所助益。
  
  本文除绪论和结论之外,主体包括三个部分,具体结构如下:
  
  绪论部分包括研究背景和意义、国内外研究与实践现状、研究思路及方法、主要创新点与不足之处等内容。
  
  第一部分阐释了政府数据开放的基本概念和属性特点。笔者在借鉴相关文献研究成果的基础上,通过对政府数据开放的多个相近概念进行比较、辨析,厘定了政府数据开放的内涵和外延,进而阐释了政府数据开放的属性及特点,为下文作现状、问题和策略分析提供了逻辑基础。
  
  第二部分对中国政府数据开放的现状和面临的问题进行分析。借鉴欧美发达国家政府数据开放的经验教训,从政策法规、数据资源整合、多方参与、管理机制四个方面概括分析中国政府数据开放的现状和亟待解决的问题。
  
  第三部分针对中国政府数据开放面临的问题研析具体的推进对策。即从法律政策、数据资源整合、多方参与、管理机制四方面提出破解中国政府数据开放方面存在问题的具体对策,即健全法律法规,做好规划设计;整合数据资源,完善平台功能;鼓励各方参与,促进多元合作;加强管理机制,满足服务需求。
  
  结论部分,针对论文主体部分取得的研究成果阐述具体观点,并对全文内容给予总结,对未来研究进行展望。
  
  关键词:大数据;政府数据开放;电子政务;公共服务;问题;对策
  
  Abstract
  
  With the advent of the era of big data, governments already have a wealth ofpublic data, we began to seek information from the public to open data. At the sametime, the public has not satisfied with the government information publicity, andrequires a deeper and more basic data open, in order to win more government publicinformation resources and services. And aims to promote to improve the governmentdecision-making and public service level, more conducive to resource utilization andinteractive open government data governance people has become the trend of the times,administration and big data has become a research focus on the topic.
  
  Data open originated from American folk sports, then driven in Europe and theUnited States and other countries open government data across the globe, also with theworld pace in China, in June 2012, following the first government data open platform –Shanghai, after government data service network opened in 2015, the State Councilissued “to promote the development of Big Data Platform for Action”, clearly stated,“to form an open public data sharing laws and regulations and policy system, beforethe end of 2018 into the national unity government data platform, the progressiverealization of people's livelihood security services related to the theory of governmentdata collection open to the public before the end of 2020”, opens the public data openaction. Open public data should be firstly led by the Government, thus, provincial andmunicipal governments will gradually open the data into the fast lane. Compared withEurope and the United States developed countries, the Chinese government open datais still in its infancy, both in theoretical research and practical exploration level has aconsiderable gap. Although the Chinese government has been deeply aware vigorouslypromote open government data is an important means to further enhance resourceutilization, is effective in improving the transparency of public policies and enhanceeffective communication between the government and the public, communication,basic feedback path, is the government's public service an important means ofequalization and inclusive. However, policies and regulations, data resourcesintegration, and the parties involved in and the problems existing in the managementmechanism and so on seriously restricts the scope of open government data, andschedule. In view of this, based on the analysis, open government data in Europe andthe developed countries for reference, on the basis of research results and practicalexperience, to clarify the connotation, extension and the open government dataattributes and characteristics, which based on the analysis of the Chinese governmentopen data under the premise of reality and facing problems, puts forward thecorresponding strategies to promote the development of the Chinese government dataopen, hope to be able to the effective implementation of the open to Chinesegovernment data.
  
  In this paper, in addition to the introduction and conclusion, the body consists ofthree parts, the specific structure is as follows:
  
  The introduction part includes the research background and significance, theresearch and practice both at home and abroad, research ideas and methods, the maininnovation points and deficiencies, etc.
  
  The first part explains the basic concepts and properties characteristics of opengovernment data. The author in reference to related literature, on the basis of researchresults, based on government data comparison, open multiple similar concepts, definethe intension and extension of the open government data, and then illustrates theproperties and characteristics of open government data, the current situation, problemsand strategies for the following analysis provides a logical basis.
  
  The second part of the Chinese government open status quo and problems of datafor analysis. Open government data in Europe and the developed countries forreference the experiences and lessons of the policy and law, data resources integration,participating, management mechanism, four aspects data summary analysis of theChinese government to open the status quo and problems to be solved.
  
  The third part according to the Chinese government data open problems this paperadvance countermeasures of concrete. From legal policy, data resources integration,participating, management mechanism four aspects to crack the Chinese governmentdata open problems of concrete countermeasures, namely perfect laws and regulations,plan design; Integration of data resources, improve the platform function; Encourageall parties to participate in and promote diversified cooperation; Strengthenmanagement mechanism, and meet the demand of the service.
  
  Conclusion part, the paper main body part of the research results in this paper, thespecific point of view, and to give summary to the full text, prospects for futureresearch.
  
  Key words: big data; Government data open; E-administration; The publicservice; Problem; Countermeasure


  目 录
  
  绪 论
  
  (一)研究背景和意义
  
  (二)国内外研究与实践现状
  
  (三)研究思路与方法
  
  (四)主要创新点和不足
  
  一、政府数据开放的概念与特点
  
  (一)政府数据开放的概念
  
  (二)政府数据开放的属性
  
  (三)政府数据开放的特点
  
  二、中国政府数据开放的现状与问题
  
  (一)中国政府数据开放的现状
  
  (二)中国政府数据开放的问题
  
  三、解决中国政府数据开放问题的策略选择
  
  (一)健全法规政策,做好规划设计
  
  (二)整合数据资源,完善平台功能
  
  (三)鼓励各方参与,促进多元合作
  
  (四)创新管理机制,满足服务需求
  
  结 论
  
  (一)主要观点
  
  (二)未来展望
  
  参考文献
  
  致 谢

文章标题:《中国政府数据开放困境研究》,原文地址:,如有转载请标明出处,谢谢。

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